::El diseño y el modernismo::

Un artículo que escribí hace un tiempo atrás para mi amiga Dani de la Universidad Mayor,  para una revista de Diseño Gráfico e Industrial.

El diseño y el modernismo

El modernismo consiste en la renovación de las actividades artísticas y literarias de las obras hechas hasta antes de fines del siglo XIX, que es cuando comienza este nuevo arte en un comienzo en países europeos, esto frente a la búsqueda de una nueva manera de expresar ideas y de crear productos y utensilios que a su vez tuvieran un componente estético importante para así salir de la uniformidad estética con la cual se convivía en aquellos años. A su vez se veía la urgencia de hacer el que el arte fuera democratizado, de alguna manera y que dejara de ser la cultura, manjar solamente de la elite social y que a su vez la cultura fuera difundida a los demás estratos de la sociedad. La idea es que se comunique a través del diseño una nueva forma de ver la realidad, poner al servicio de las personas un nuevo lenguaje artístico, un lenguaje simbólico, llamativo y generador de sensaciones nuevas por ejemplo, para los habitantes de un pequeño pueblo que a su vez disfrutan mas de su entorno inmediato al ver que en este se interviene el espacio en pro de una transformación hacia algo nuevo, novedoso y divertido.

Lo anterior también se logra gracias al desarrollo de nuevas técnicas y métodos para confeccionar los diferentes elementos usados comúnmente por las personas, ya fueran de uso domestico como herramientas o inmobiliario. La revolución industrial trajo consigo el desarrollo de nuevas materia primas para la construcción de viviendas, esto fue una gran innovación en la arquitectura, un ejemplo claro de esto es que en las obras edificadas se comienzan a utilizar materiales como el hierro y el vidrio.

El fenómeno mas destacable de este modernismo es la socialización del arte, que tiene todo un trasfondo ideológico – ético, donde el artista y diseñador tiene que tener en cuenta la individualidad del hombre, tiene que tener en cuenta al sujeto y a sus problemáticas en un momento determinado de la historia, para así satisfacer sus necesidades y contribuir a la idea que es que el diseñador es un agente social que invente y cree soluciones a las personas. Lo anterior es para reafirmar la validez del diseño y del rol de diseñador, para dejar claro que el diseño es un arte que sirve, que es útil y no una creación abstracta sin un fin y/o utilidad. Así también es menester del diseñador promover que su diseño al ser funcional no deja de ser arte, sino más bien reafirma el carácter creativo e innovador de su trabajo, el diseño. 

En relación al hombre creador del arte se puede decir que en un principio los diseñadores solían ser artistas multidisciplinarios que pasaban de la pintura, a la arquitectura o al diseño relacionado con inmobiliario, siendo su labor de muy buena valoración para el resto de las personas, lo cual ha cambiado considerablemente en nuestros días, donde si bien el diseñador es valorado ha perdido esa esencia de ser artista, siendo relegado a un área de producción mas bien relacionada con la industria y una lógica comercial, es lo que hoy se llama diseño industrial, donde la mayor parte de las cosas son hechas por computadores perdiendo un poco esa imagen romántica del diseñador como un artesano, por otra parte también, el hecho de dividir al diseño en disciplinas ha cortado un poco a los diseñadores en cuanto a su movilidad disciplinaria, en cuanto a su creatividad. El modernismo trae consigo una nueva actitud hacia la naturaleza con una mirada desde un punto de vista integrador para las diferentes áreas del diseño y del arte, como a su vez se transforma en un fenómeno cultural a nivel mundial, cuyo legado fue fundamental para las disciplinas artísticas y académicas.

 

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